SANITATION SCENARIO, BANGLADESH

In 1971, Bangladesh attained its independence under the dynamic leadership of our `Father of the Nation’ Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. He started construction of the newly born country and put emphasis on reconstruction of water and sanitation facilities. The daughter of Bangabandhu, our Prime Minister Shiekh Hasina is also committed to fulfill the SDG target through which safe water and safely managed sanitation facilities to be ensured.

Accordingly, Bangladesh stands out as one of the role model among developing countries that has made good progress in basic sanitation and reducing open defecation. Bangladesh has been able to make a change of social and cultural behavior of the people in respect of sanitation, by changing the behavior of open defecation to defecate in fixed latrine. 

Sanitation Coverage and Achievement (1990-2018)

The political commitment of the Government and a multi-stakeholder approach has led to remarkable improvement in sanitation coverage.

In Bangladesh a nationwide baseline survey conducted for the first time in 2003 revealed that improved sanitation coverage was only 33% and 42% of the population had no latrine for defecation. According to the JMP report in 2015, only 1% of the population are practicing open defecation, 10% of the population are using unimproved latrines, 28% of the population are sharing latrines and 61% of the population are using improved latrines (WHO/UNICEF, 2015). This indicates that improved sanitation coverage in the country is increased by 28% since 2003. 

Bangladesh

Sanitation coverage estimates

Urban (%)

Rural (%)

Total (%)

1990

2015

1990

2015

1990

2015

Improved facilities

47

58

31

62

34

61

Shared facilities

24

30

14

28

16

28

Other unimproved

19

12

15

8

16

10

Open defecation

10

0

40

2

34

1

Source: WHO/UNICEF JMP, 2015

 

 

 

Target

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

Achievement

Rural

100%

90%

94%

96%

97%

97%

97%

98%

98%

99%

Urban

100%

92%

95%

95%

97%

97%

97%

98%

98%

99%

Policies, Strategies and Frameworks

The political commitment of the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) for sanitation has been the major driving force for the sanitation movement in the country. This high level of Government commitment has been reflected in various policy reform initiatives to improve effectiveness and efficiency of service delivery in this sector. The women, children, differently able people, indigenous communities, disadvantaged, hard-core people and floating population have been mainstreamed in the policy documents. The major policies and strategies guiding the sanitation movement in Bangladesh are:

The National Policy for Safe Water Supply and Sanitation, 1998

The National Sanitation Strategy, 2005

The Pro-Poor Strategy for Water and Sanitation, 2005

The Sector Development Plan, 2011-25

The National Strategy for Water and Sanitation in Hard to Reach Areas of Bangladesh, 2012

The National Hygiene Promotion Strategy for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector in Bangladesh, 2012

The National Cost Sharing Strategy for Water Supply and Sanitation in Bangladesh 2012

National Strategy for Water Supply and Sanitation, 2014

Institutional and Regulatory Framework for Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) in Bangladesh 2016

Social and Technological Advancement

The tremendous achievement that Bangladesh has made in reducing open defecation to a single digit (from 34% in 1990 to 1% in 2018) in just 25 years could be attributed to the early recognition that attitudes and behaviors are as important as any technology or infrastructure. A national sanitation campaign started by the GoB in October’2003, targeting the MDG goal on improved sanitation, brought together NGOs, international agencies and other stakeholders.

  • Since the launch of the National Sanitation Campaign in 2003, the Government has made several decisions to promote sanitation.
  • The month of October is observed as “Sanitation Month” each year since 2003.
  • The most successful sanitation programs in Bangladesh adopted community-inclusive approaches and reached the targeted audience through various channels that includes village WASH committees, cluster meetings, Local Government level co-ordination meetings, student brigades, school WASH committees, religious leaders, Local Government representatives etc.
  • A sophisticated approach in tailoring the social mobilization and incentives to local entrepreneurs to meet the demand created by continuous hygiene promotion was another innovative approach that contributed to the country’s current improved sanitation status.
  • The national hygiene survey 2014 revealed that 84% of our primary schools have improved toilet facilities for students and approximately one‐third of all schools had water and soap available inside or near (<30 feet) the toilets. 

Sanitation Target

Indicator

Base Year Information

 (2017-18)

Target

Comments

2018-19

2019-20

Urban Sanitary Coverage

98%
(58% Improved Latrine+30% Shared Latrine+12% Un-Improved Latrine)

100%
(90% Improved Latrine+10% Shared Latrine+0% Un-Improved Latrine)

100%
(100% Improved Latrine+0% Shared Latrine+0% Un-Improved Latrine)

Target fixed following 7th Five year Plan to achieve Vision 2021  

Rural Sanitary Coverage

 98%
(62% Improved Latrine+28% Shared Latrine+8% Un-Improved Latrine)

100%
(90% Improved Latrine+10% Shared Latrine+0% Un-Improved Latrine)

 100%
(100% Improved Latrine+0% Shared Latrine+0% Un-Improved Latrine)

 

 
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